اطلاعاتي جامع از ايران بزبان انكليسي
27th Anniverary of The Islamic Revolution In Iran
Iranian revolution surges on FEBRUARY 10th marks the 27th anniversary of the Victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran. Today is the National Day of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the 27th anniversary of the Victory of the Historic revolution of the Iranian Nation which manifests itself as the Islamic Revolution, a movement, which indicated the will of a Nation to exercise its authority and to determine its own destiny
The Victory of the glorious Islamic revolution on Feb 10 ,1979, brought about by the leadership of Imam Khomeini (May God Almighty award him Paradise), and based on broad-based human rights goals and Islamic values, was a magnificent achievement in the process of the revolution which, in fact, started in the year 1963 .
Today with its efforts directed towards the construction and development, the Iranian Nation has chosen the path of Islamic dignity and power. The historical relations of two nations go back to 1000 years ago when an Iranian family from Shiraz (a city in southern part of Iran) came to Zanzibar and settled there. Despite historical, cultural and religious ties and contacts between both nations there was no diplomatic relations between the two countries during the reign of the Pahlavi period, due to the beginning of close relations with the racial regime of South Africa.
After the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran and establishment of independent government in 1979, the Revolutionary Government of Iran cut all its relations with South Africa’s apartheid regime. Since then the exchanges of high-ranking delegations between the two countries showed a new stage in bilateral relations. Diplomatic relations was started in 1980. Both countries have had good co-ordination and co-operation in international communities such as UN, Non-Aligned Movement and G77.
In 1983 Ayatollah Khamenei ( AS THE president AT THAT TIME ) (Political and Religious leader) of the Islamic Republic of Iran accompanied by high-ranking delegation visited Tanzania, which was a remarkable point. Since then the Construction Bureau (Jihad Sazandagi) began its activities in agriculture, cultivation, rural services etc . It has fulfilled so many projects such as constructing roads, building schools and houses, dry irrigated farming projects, research farming and plantation projects, construction of a clinic in Ikwiriri region and has spent millions of US Dollars in performing these projects for the development of Tanzanian peoples especially in Dar es salaam, Zanzibar, Rufiji, Ikwiriri.
In response to the Iranian president trip to Tanzania, H.E Mr. Ali Hassan Mwinyi, the former president had a journey to Iran in 1989 and in this visit a Memorandum of Common Commission was signed between the two countries. In 1990 H.E Mr. Hashemi Rafsanjani, former president of Islamic Republic of Iran traveled to Tanzania on an official visit. He was accompanied by several ministers and held high-ranking talks and signed several agreements and Memorandums of Understandings (MOU`s) for more co-operation in different fields with the Government of Tanzania.
Later on H.E Mr. John Malecela, former Prime Minister traveled to Tehran. Exchange of all these high-ranking delegations between two friendly countries has opened a new chapter in mutual relations and paved the way for the expansion of co operations between the two nations
Recently in NOV 2007 his Excellency DR. ail Mohammed shin the vise president of Tanzania visited Iran and he had a very good and useful meeting with Mr. ahmadinejad the president of the Islamic republic of Iran and DR davoodi his Iranian counterpart . Two side signed several agreement man mou s.
Monthly after that Mrs. merry nago minister of justice and conditional affairs visited Iran and she had also very grated full meeting with the high-ranking Iranian judiciary persons.
Beside of that the sub meeting of the president of two countries in Bujumbura at 2006 was the important event in the history of bilateral relation between two countries . at that meeting , both sides agreed to do their best rules to extend the relation between two countries and nation in all field of cooperation .
The recent visit of H.E Mr. ahmadinejad president of Islamic Republic of Iran to eight African countries in bujumbora proof the importance and priority of African countries and nations in Foreign Policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran particularly in promotion of economic and trade relations
The Islamic Republic of Iran appreciates Tanzania’s active role in bringing peace and security to the Great Lakes region and its role in African Union. Islamic Republic of Iran supported Tanzania as non-permanent membership of United Nation Security Council and some other international organization and repeatedly declares its readiness for further deepening and expanding our strong friendly ties.
The highest priority of the Islamic Republic of Iran's Foreign Policies is that, the expansion and intensification of relations with African Countries, especially the United Republic of Tanzania and announces its willingness for the establishment of multidimensional cooperation with the new African Union, and wishes to have active participation in the development and integrity process of the African countries mainly the promotion of the African Union.
.In fact, we are pursuing common objectives in our efforts to develop cooperation and consolidate global peace, stability and security. The Islamic Republic of Iran is ever desirous in expanding relations with all African countries especially with The United Republic of Tanzania in all fields. I hope we shall witness expansion of co operations and bilateral relationship between our two friendly countries in all fields of cooperation.
Iran: The Profile
Government: Islamic republic
Population: 70 million
Population growth rate: 1.6%
Religion: Muslim, Shia ithna-ashari (99%), other religions: Zoroastrian, Christianity, Jewish.
Official language: Persian (Farsi)
Area: 1,648,195 Km.
Location: in the Middle East, West Asia
The length of coastal borders: 2,700 km
Currency: Rial ( 9300 rials equal to 1 $ )
Imports-main commodities: heavy machineries, foodstuffs, animal products, chemical products, electronic and electric products.
Literacy rate: 92.7 %
Life expectancy at birth: 70 years
Export main commodities: oil, gas, agricultural products, carpets, caviar, pistachio, iron, steel, engineering and technical machineries as well as machineries used in the service sector.
Income per capita: 1,600 USD
Inflation rate: 17 %
Agricultural and animal production: wheat, barley, rice, corn, meat, poultry, milk, sugar etc . 15 % of total NGP
Main industries: oil and gas, petrochemicals, steel, textile and automobile manufacturing, Auto parts , pharmaceutical, food industries, cosmatic and hygienic products.
Main handicrafts: carpets, glim, pottery, inlaid works.
Most important mines:coal,metallic minerals,salt, chemical mines, stones.
Total number of TV networks: 40
Number of provincial TV networks: 30
Number of nation-wide TV networks: 8
Number of International TV networks: 5
Number of radio networks: 10
Number of public libraries: 1,574
Number of printed book titles: 45,000
Circulation of printed books: 193,753,000
Number of fixed telephone lines: 23 million
Number of cell phones lines: 24 million
Villages enjoying telephone lines: 6117
Length of roads: 130.000 km
Length of highways: 26,600 km
Railways: 8.657 km
Main roads: 130,000
Number of airports: 53
A brief history of Iran
THE Iranian history dates back to over 9,000 years ago and the country is among the three ancient regions in the world where writing appeared for the first time. Pictorial writings found in the west of Iran dates back to over 3,200 years before. The first empire was found in Fars Province (Shiraz) by the Iranian Dynasty, the Achamenians over 2,500 years ago. The country was ruled under the monarchy ever since until 1979 when the Islamic Revolution occurred and subsequently a new system of government that is the Islamic Republic, was established.
After the collapse of Pahlavi dynasty in Bahman 1357 (Feb 1979) people of Iran unanimously (99.8%) voted for the establishment of the Islamic Republic in a referendum held for the establishment of a new political system in the country.
Iran is among the few countries in the world, which enjoys non-alignment policy and maintained its independence and has never been a colony or a protectorate.
The Islamic Revolution of Iran was culminated in 1979 under the leadership of Imam Khomeini, one of the Greatest shiite clerics in Iran. The Revolution, which led to the fall of the imperial system in Iran, is considered as a move towards the establishment of democracy based on national-religious beliefs of the people.
Facts & figures about Iran
: The Land
IRAN, officially The Islamic Republic of Iran) is a vast country in southwest Asia. Covering a surface area of 1,648,195 square kilo meters, it is bordered by Iraq (1,609 km) on the west, Turkey (486 km) on the northwest, the Republics of Armenia, Azarbaijan, Turkmanistan (all parts of the former Soviet Union), as well as the Caspian Sea (2,670 km) on the north, Afghanistan (945 km) on the east, Pakistan (978 km) on the southeast, the Persian Gulf (1,259 km) and the Sea of Oman (748 km) on the south.
The Persian Gulf is the shallow marginal part of the Indian Ocean that lies between the Arabian Peninsula and the southwest Iran. The sea has an area of 240,000 square kilometers from the Arvand Rud (Shatt ol-Arab) delta to the Strait of Hormoz, which links it with the Sea of Oman. Its linear length is 900 km, and its width varies from a maximum of 338 km to minimum of 55 km in the Strait of Hormoz. It is bordered on the north, northeast and east by Iran, on the northwest by Iraq and Kuwait, on the west and southwest by Saudi Arabia and Qatar, and on the south and the southeast by the United Arab Emirates and partly by Oman.
The Sea of Oman opens into the Arabian Sea. It was generally thought that the Persian gulf extended farther north and that sediment dropped by the Tigris, Euphrates, Karun, and Karkheh rivers filled the northern part of the Persian gulf to create a great delta. But geologic investigation now indicates that the coastline has not moved and that the marshlands of the delta represent a sinking of the earth's crust as the Arabian land block pushes under Iran.
Several rivers are flowing inside Iranian mainland, the only navigable one of which is the Karun (920-km). Other large rivers are: The Atrak (535 km), Dez (515 km), Hendijan (488 km), Jovein (440 km) Jarahi (438 km), Karkheh (755 km), Mand (685 km), Qara Chai (540 km), Sefid Rud (795 km), and the Zayandeh Rud (405 km).
During the summertime, there is little water flowing in the mainland rivers. However, water flows underground, finding its outlets in subterranean water canals (locally called qanats), springs, and tapped by wells.
The high Alborz range in the north, the Zagros range in the west and southwest as well as the eastern mountains of Iran, which surround the Iranian Plateau, provide Iran with a ruggedly mountainous terrain.
Iran has a population of about 70,000,000 with a population density of 43 per sq. km. The nation consists of the following national and ethnic groups: Turks, Kurds, Baluchis, Lurs, Turkmans, Arabs, the Armenians, the Assyrians, and the nomads (consisting of the Bakhtiari, Qashqa'i and several other smaller tribes).
According to the recent census,68.4 % of the total population were living in cities and towns( 48245000 person ) , while 31.6 % were either living in rural areas or migrating ( 22227000 person ) .
Political Divisions of the Country:
The country is divided into 30 provinces , Tehran is the nation's capital. A governor-general(ostandar) is appointed to each province (ostan) by the ministry of home affairs and fulfills his duty as the representative of the president of the Islamic republic of Iran , which acts as the civil chief of all the government offices in his province. Each of the 30 province is divided into many townships (at least 1115 sharestans) under a governor (farmandar), and each of these in turn being divided into many counties (bakhshes 64000 ) under bakhshdar, who supervises several rural distinct managed by dehdars.
Iran is an Islamic Republic established following the Islamic Revolution of 1979. Under the Constitution of Nov 1979 all cultural, social, political, and economic institutions of Iranian society are to be based on the Islamic principles and norms.
All government policies are supervised and correlated with Divine decrees through the Vali-e Faqih (Jurisconsult or the Supreme Leader). According to the Constitution he is responsible for this concordance before God and the people during the time when the 12th Imam is in occultation.
Ayatollah Ali Khamenie, Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution, is the Supreme Head of the Government and the General Commander of the Armed Forces as well. He co-ordinates government policies with Divine decrees.
The legislative wing of the State, Majlis-e Shura-ye Eslami (Islamic Consultative Assembly) consists of 290 representatives elected by the direct vote of the people for a term of four years from the entire part of the country .
The Cabinet consists of 22 Ministers at the head of their corresponding Ministries functioning under the President. Right now the 9th phase of government is fulfilling its activity whit the management of Mr. Mahmoud ahmadi nejad as president and Mr. Parviz davodi as vise president. The terms of government is 5 years,
The Constitution has also provided for a constitutional council of sages known as the Council of the Guardians of the Constitution (Shura-ye Negahban-e Qanun-e Assasi) which has the power to either approve or veto the Assembly's resolutions which are not connivance with sharia or constitutions . The Assembly of Experts (Majlis-e Khebregan), is another Islamic body responsible for the choosing of a Leader in the event of the present leader's demise and to supervise his activity . The country is divided into 30 provinces ruled over by an Ostandar (governor-general) .
Iran students population
ACCORDING to official statistics from Ministry of Science of the Islamic Republic of Iran, in year 2006-2007 a total number of 15,422,085 million students are studying at primary, secondary and high schools and a total number of 2,388,569 students are studying in Universities and Institutions affiliated to the Ministry of Higher Education. This amount includes 53.94% females and 46.06% males and about 24,000 professors are teaching in Universities.
In this sector Islamic Azad (Open) University (IAU) has very important role. This university is a no-profit, non-governmental system of higher education founded in 1982 in the Islamic Republic of Iran. It offers 66 study courses in its 292 campuses and centers in and out of the country and till today 1100000 students has been qualified and granted degrees in different levels.
Inadequacy of highly educated, trained and professionals in Zanzibar and the United Tanzania in particular and the Eastern African Region in general has become one of major concerns to this university`s international programs. To meet the changes and challenges in the United Republic of Tanzania and the Eastern African Continent, noticing the great need for highly qualified teachers, engineers, scientists, medical doctors, agriculturists and trained personnel. The IAU planned to establish a Campus in Zanzibar and Dar es salam.
The university plans to house 8 Faculties i.e. Sciences- Agriculture Engineering & Natural Sciences- Engineering IT.ICT and Computer Sciences- Medicine, Humanity Sciences, Business and Managements and International Relations (Regional Studies) in its related departments and Institute in Zanzibar and also 6 faculties i.e. Natural Sciences, Computer Sciences, engineering business management, International politics & Law and marine engineering in Dar es Salaam as well as Kiswahili language course .
Islamic Azad University recently has concluded an agreement with the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports of the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar and officially establish its branch in Zanzibar to develop young scholars and promote knowledge through education and scientific research and develop specialized man power in order to meet social needs throughout the country.
Status of women in Iran:
The number of NGOs dealing with women`s issues has increased to 150 ,of which 25 are active in the field of women`s poverty eradication, promotion of women`s economic independence and promotion of self-employment. Women constitute 34% of the total number of universities professors in the country and 64% of the students taking part in the competitive entrance exams are girls and about 60% are registered in the universities.
As a result of aforementioned endeavors, there was a 60 percent increase in the number of women candidates running for parlimentary seats in the recent election and 12 ao them are appointed as membwrs of parleman in the 7TH phase . 2336 women have been elected as the members of city and village councils.
Culture and religion in Iran Literature of Iran:
THE oldest extant Persian writing is found in Persian inscriptions, but it is only of historical interest. The first major literary works are the scriptures of Zoroastrianism and the Pahlavi writing of Parthian and Sassanian Iran, when there was certainly an active literary life. But all that we know of it consists of a few indirect references and some brief works in Middle Persian or Pahlavi which were preserved, along with religious books, in the Zoroastrian communities, collections of maxims, a historical romance.
Poetry was cultivated by minstrels. The names of some of these poet musicians have come down to us, like Barbod, the favorite of Khosrow Parviz; but their work was never written down and has been lost. Fragments of Manichaean religious poetry has been recorded from the sand by archaeologists and are of such high quality that they may be assumed to belong to a well-established tradition. Some of these are to be found as far away as in China today.
The Arab Conquest (7th century AD) made Arabic the literary language and Islam the dominant literary theme. Many notable works of Arabic literature are by Persians. Persian re-emerged as the literary language in the 9th century AD, and in the following centuries-classical Persian literature flowered.
This literature is undoubtedly the most brilliant expression of the Iranian genius. While there are also interesting works in prose, it is poetry – the most varied in the Islamic world –that gives Iranian literature special value. Cherished over a period of more than 10 centuries, it was enjoyed and imitated well beyond the confines of the Iranian Plateau: in Asia Minor, in Central Asia and in the Muslim communities of India. The literature of Turkey and India developed under its influence.
Of the early known poets one should count Rudaki, who was blind, and Daqiqi. Of Rudaki’s poems dating 940 AD, few remain to this day though he is reputed to have written several thousand. Daqiqi was an epic poet, commissioned to write the original Shahnameh (The Book of Kings), the national epic. It took him about thirty years to compose 60,000 couplets of the Shahnameh which gives the history of Iran to the end of the Sassanian period.
He is said to have been promised a gold coin for every couplet of his Shahnameh by the reigning court. However, when he completed the monumental work in 999 AD, the reigning monarch, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, was staggered by the size of it and instead offered him a silver coin for each couplet. Ferdowsi turned down the offer and returned to Tus, brokenhearted, where he composed a sharp satire against the Sultan. He died penniless, but his Shahnameh lives forever in the heart of every Iranian.
Sultan Mahmud is reputed to have had four hundred poets attached to his court. These included many poets who were great in their own right: Onsori, Farrokhi, Manuchehri, Asadi, etc, al-Biruni, who wrote The Chronicle of Ancient Nations, was also at his court.
Classical Persian literature has developed under two powerful patronages: royal and religious. Though existing fragments of Persian verse are dated by experts as early as the 8th century AD, the known history of Persian literature begins in the 9th century, with the beginning of the decline of the caliphs at Baghdad. At that time, local royal dynasties were rising in Iran and increasingly asserting their independence of the caliphs. The resulting dynasties established their own courts and patronized poets and scholars. It was in Bokhara, at the Samanid court, that Avicenna improved o the medicine and philosophy of ancient Greece. Until two centuries ago his treaties and books were used as textbooks in some schools of medicine in Europe. He is said to have started writing his encyclopedia when only eight years old.
Prose – tales, fables, allegories, and philosophical and scientific works – also flourished. The most outstanding prose works were histories: many of these surpassed their Arabic models.
The Seljuk period stands out in the history of Iranian literature – a period rich in both verse and prose. The latter included such outstanding books as Ghazali’s Revivification of Religious Sciences and its Persian summary The Alchemy of Happiness; Bayhaqi’s History of the Ghaznavids, Nezam ol-Molk’s Book of Government and Kaykavus’s Book of Qabus; the fables of Kalikeh va Demneh and Nezami Aruzi’s Four Discourses. All of these are still considered masterpieces of Persian prose.
In a class by himself was Nasser Khosrow, a poet and great scholar whose travel books are among the seven or eight of his fifteen works in prose and some of 30,000 verses that still survive. His best known book is his Travelogue to Egypt. Nasser Khosrow’s poems are mainly lengthy odes on religious and ethical subjects. Some Iranian scholars believe that Nasser Khosrow should join the six in the Iranian Hall of Fame of outstanding poet – Ferdowsi, Khayyam, Anvari, Mowlavi, Sa’di and Hafez.
Ommar Khayyam (11th century AD), both a poet and a mathematician, while combining two opposite attributes, crafter his well-known Rubaiyat. Also among the great poets are the poets of sufism: Farid ad-Din Attar and Jalal od-Din Rumi.
In addition, the Seljuk period can boast of other giants in literature, such as Onsori, Abu Sa’eed, Baba Taher, Mas’ud Sa’d Salman, Gorgani and Sana’ei. Mo’ezzi, Anvari and Khaqani are masters of Persian poetry of the more sophisticated style which is impossible to translate. Hence, they remain relatively unknown outside the country.
After the 15th century Persian literature went into a decline that lasted until the 19th century. In the 20th century, Western influence and the struggle for independence and social justice in Iran made political and social themes paramount, and literary language became simple and direct. Modern poets include Iraj Mirza, Aref Pishavari, Malak osh-Sho-ara Bahar, Hushang Ebtehaj, Parvin E’tessaami, Nima Ushij, Ahmad Shamlu, Mehdi Akhavan Saales, Forough Farrokhzad, and Sohrab –e Sepehri. Saadegh Hedayat, Jamalzadeh, Dowlat Abadi, Darvishian, Ali-Mohammad Afghani, and Jamal Mir Saadeghi are the country’s celebrated novelists in modern times.
The state religion of Iran is Ja'fari Faith of the Twelve Imams. According to official 1986 statistics, about 98.5% of the population is Muslim, most of whom belong to Shi'ite Sect. Other Islamic sects are Hanafi, Shafe'i, Maleki, Hanbali, and Zeidi, all of which are respected and enjoy perfect freedom. The Zoroastrian, Armenian, Jewish, Assyrian, and Chaldean religious minorities have their own religious organizations.
While Muslims constitute more than 98.5% of the country's population, the Christians command a population of 0.7%,with 47 churches, the Jews 0.3%, the Zoroastrians 0.1%, with 17 temples and the followers of other religions 0.1%. Protection of the cultural, social, and political rights of all religious minorities are recognized by the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Iranian Jews, apart from being represented in the Parliament, have around 30 synagogues all over the country, their own association, a journal named Tamous, and private schools. All of these minorities have official representatives in Parliament.
The Armenians and Assyrians, who have peacefully lived in Iran since ancient times ( refeer to the article wich was printed in GURDIAN NEWPAPER DATE 27/12/2007 ON PAGE viii ), constitute Iran's Christian community. Armenians, like other minorities, have their own private schools, a journal in Armenian named Alik, and are represented in the Parliament. There are around twenty Gregorian Churches where religious ceremonies take place, as well as a Catholic Church, and other centers for Protestant Armenians.
The Assyrians have their own association, which takes care of their community, churches where religious ceremonies take place, and a number of publication centers. They are also represented in the Parliament. There are other sects of Christianity like Protestants, Roman Catholics, Adventists, all of whom have their own centers of worship.
Zoroastrianism prevailed in Iran much earlier than the advent of Islam. Zoroastrianism is a dualistic ancient Iranian religion the creation of which is credited to the mythical prophet. Zarathushtra (Zoroaster in Greek). Zoroastrianism had been fully shaped by the 7th century BC. The main thing in Zoroastrianism is the doctrine of the constant struggle in the world between two opposite elements: good, personified by the god of lightness Ahura Mazda (Ormanzd), and evil, personified by the god of darkness Angro Mainyush (Ahriman).
Its eschatological ideas on the end of the world, judgment, resurrection of the dead and a future savior born of a Virgin exerted great influence on Judaism and Christianity. Apart from Iran, at present, exists in the form of Parsiism in India and has preserved the old dualistic ideas but developed the concept of a single Almighty God.
General point of view all minatory in Iran which is consist of less than 2 % of the total population, they have 5 representative in Ira